[세계] 무더위 불청객 3대 질병..."저리가"
                                - 응급의학과 정성필 교수

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일사·열사병 환자 맥주·카페인 음료 피해야

무더운 여름 낮에 태양의 강한 직사광선을 받으며 야외 활동이나 운동을 장시간 하다보면 일사병과 열사병에 걸리기 쉽다. 올해 폭염이 계속되었던 남부지방에는 불볕더위로 열사병 환자가 지난해보다 3배 이상 증가했다고 보건당국이 밝혔다. 일사병과 열사병은 흔히 같은 질환으로 혼동하는 경우가 많은데, 발병 원인과 처치법에 많은 차이가 있다. 일사병과 열사병에 대해 알아보고, 역시 강한 햇빛이 원인인 일광화상도 함께 살펴본다.

◆ 수분이 부족해 생기는 일사병

일사병(Heat exhaustion)은 열탈진이라고도 하며, 더운 환경에서 염분과 수분이 소실돼 생기는 질환이다. 대부분 열에 상당 시간 노출됐으나 제대로 수분과 염분 보충을 하지 못해 발생한다. 노인에게 일어나는 경우가 흔하며, 땀을 많이 흘리고 창백해지며 두통·무력감·구역·구토·어지럼증 등을 호소한다. 피부가 차고 젖어 있으며 체온은 크게 상승하지 않는다. 일사병이 의심되면 서늘하고 그늘진 곳에서 쉬면서 시원한 음료, 특히 염분이 포함된 음료를 마시는 것이 좋다. 맥주 등 알코올 음료나 카페인이 든 음료는 이뇨작용을 일으키므로 피하는 것이 좋다. 차가운 물로 샤워를 하거나 목욕을 하는 것도 괜찮다. 증상이 심하다면 병원에서 수액을 투여해 수분과 염분을 보충해야 한다.

◆ 체온조절기능 망가지는 열사병

심각한 문제를 일으키는 것은 열사병이다. 열사병(heat stroke)은 과도하게 높은 기온에 오랜 시간 노출되면 체온조절 중추가 제대로 작동을 하지 못해 땀을 흘리는 기능이 망가져 생긴다. 보통 밀폐되고 환기가 잘 안 되는 고온다습한 환경에서 격렬한 육체노동을 하는 경우에 발생한다.

지속적인 체온상승이 일어나 40도 이상까지 오르고, 땀이 나지 않아 피부가 건조해진다. 심한 두통과 어지러움, 구역질 증상을 보이며 의식이 혼미해지거나 심하면 의식을 잃기도 한다. 심신허약자와 노인, 심장병이나 당노병을 앓고 있으면 열사병에 더 취약하다. 일사병과 달리 햇볕을 쐬지 않더라고 걸릴 수 있으나, 일사병을 방치하면 열사병으로 진행될 수도 있다.

열사병에 걸리면 높은 체온에 의해 신체 조직이 파괴되고 심하면 사망에 이를 수 있으므로, 바로 응급조치를 해야 한다. 환자를 서늘한 곳으로 옮긴 후 빨리 체온을 떨어뜨리는 게 가장 중요하다. 옷을 벗기고 젖은 수건이나 시트로 환자를 덮고 바람을 일으키거나, 피부에 분무기로 25도 정도의 물을 뿌려준다. 그러나 의식이 저하된 환자에게 함부로 음료수를 마시도록 하는 것은 위험하다.

강남세브란스 병원 응급의학과 정성필 교수는 “열사병은 체내의 장기들이 과열되어 기능을 잃게 되므로 열 관련 질환 중 가장 심각한 응급 질환”이라며 “열사병 치료는 무엇보다 환자의 체온을 적극적으로 낮추어 정상화시키는 것이 중요하다”고 강조했다.

◆ 피부가 화끈거리는 일광화상

강한 햇빛, 특히 자외선에 무방비 상태로 장시간 노출되면 일광화상(햇빛화상)을 입을 수 있다.

햇빛이 닿은 피부가 빨갛게 되고 부종이나 막이 얇은 수포가 생기게 된다. 이어 열이 나고 화끈거리는 통증이 생기게 된다. 그 후 계속 자외선에 노출되면 피부 세포가 멜라닌 색소를 만들어 피부가 검게 그을려 보이게 된다. 정 교수는 “일광화상을 예방하기 위해서는 태양광선이 가장 강한 시간인 오전 10시부터 오후 3시까지는 밖에서 활동하는 것을 가급적 피하는 것이 좋다”고 강조했다.

햇빛이 강한 야외로 나갈 때는 피부를 직접 드러내지 말아야 하고, 햇빛을 피하기 위해 긴 소매 옷을 입고 모자를 쓰는 게 좋다. 자외선 차단 크림도 발라줘야 하는데, SPF(자외선 차단지수)가 15 이상이고 UVA와 UVB를 모두 차단할 수 있는 것이어야 한다. 크림은 태양광선에 노출되기 30분 전에 사용하며, 수영을 하거나 땀을 흘린 뒤에는 다시 발라줘야 한다.


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    Contamos con un departamento de servicios técnicos especializados en electrodomésticos industriales de hostelería, sabemos la importancia de que un negocio industria no se puede parar, sobre todo cuando está en plena actividad, es por eso que contamos con servicios de intervención rápida, con un amplio horario todo con teléfono de urgencia disponible 24 horas.

  44. Network Marketing Training 2017/01/23 06:34  댓글주소  수정/삭제  댓글쓰기

    Also in Old Town, but a bit more taken from the City section, we find the Draw & Label Manufacturers Start which
    Marketing & Communications Director post - 5+ decades' association knowledge including work-in direct marketing, social & net media disciplines wanted.

  45. bike shop nyc 34th street 2017/02/04 03:27  댓글주소  수정/삭제  댓글쓰기

    A bicycle that it is prepared and prepared to take you to
    any office plus a round the metropolis and back again-all about the same demand of the
    battery and folds up so that it might be loaded or saved
    on a train.